Everything in Python is an object, and almost everything has attributes and methods, but different programming languages define “object” in different ways. In some, it means that all objects must have attributes and methods; in others, it means that all objects are subclassable. In Python, the definition is looser: everything…


This is the third article in a series about what the compilation process is and how it works, using the C language as an example.

  1. with GNU Compiler Collection.
  2. , or how to use static libraries in C.
  3. Dynamic libraries in C:


Many of us use the shell for years, but not all of us know how it actually works. That’s why today we will talk about what processes occur under the hood of the shell, and about how it is designed.

What is the shell anyway?

According to Wikipedia, a Unix shell is a command-line interpreter…


This is the second article in a series about what the compilation process is and how it works, using the C language as an example.

  1. with GNU Compiler Collection.
  2. , or how to use static libraries in C. (this article)
  3. Dynamic libraries in…


gcc main.c

This is the first article in a series about what the compilation process is and how it works, using the C language as an example.

  1. with GNU Compiler Collection. (this article)
  2. , or how to use static libraries in C.
  3. Dynamic libraries in…


An inode is a data structure on a filesystem on Linux and other Unix-like operating systems that stores all the information about a file except its name and its actual data.

A filesystem itself is the hierarchy of directories (the directory tree) that is used to organize files on a…


For those of us who only starting with programming, terminal looks like a window to a world of magic, and that magic sometimes looks dark. This is not surprising, especially if our padawan sees something like this:

However, this array of mystical symbols is a helpful command full of sense…


It has been a long time since I wanted to start writing stories for Medium, and today I decided to begin doing so. …

Sergii Garkusha

Hacker. 500 Startups Alumni. Envato Elite. School of AI Dean. Runner. Ukrainian. I write about software, AI & life. SF 🌁

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